Six Essential Operating Tips for Excavators

Excavators are powerful machines used in various construction and mining projects. To ensure optimal performance and safety, operators should master specific techniques. Here are six key operating tips for using excavators in different conditions.

1.Excavator Operating Techniques

Before commencing operations, it’s crucial to assess the surroundings. During rotational operations, be aware of nearby obstacles and terrain to ensure safe operation. Ensure that the tracks’ orientation is correct to avoid tipping over or collisions. Both tracks should have full contact with the ground to enhance the machine’s overall stability during operations.

2.Effective Digging Methods

The digging force is maximized when the bucket cylinder and link, as well as the stick cylinder and stick, form a 90-degree angle. For optimal digging force, maintain a 30-degree angle between the bucket teeth and the ground. When using the stick to dig, the angle should range from 45 degrees in the front to 30 degrees at the back. Coordinating the boom and bucket can significantly improve digging efficiency.

3.Excavating Rocks

Digging rocks with a bucket can cause significant damage to the machinery and should be avoided if possible. If necessary, adjust the excavator’s position according to the cracks in the rock to facilitate easy penetration and digging with the bucket. Insert the teeth into the rock cracks and use the stick and bucket’s force to excavate (be cautious of tooth slippage). Use a hydraulic rock breaker to pre-break rocks that have not been fragmented before digging with the bucket.

China hydraulic breaker factory
China hydraulic breaker factory


4.Slope Leveling Operations

When leveling surfaces, keep the machine stable on the ground to prevent shaking. Coordinating the movements of the boom and stick is crucial for effective surface leveling, as is controlling their speed.

5.Loading Operations

The excavator should be positioned on a level and stable surface to control rotation during unloading and to shorten operation cycles. Maintain a suitable distance between the excavator and the truck to avoid collisions during 180-degree rotations. Preferably, load from the left side for a broader field of vision and higher efficiency. Correctly managing the rotation angle can reduce the time spent rotating. The truck should be positioned lower than the excavator to shorten the lifting time of the boom and ensure good visibility. Load sand and gravel first, followed by large rocks, to minimize impact on the truck bed.

6.Operations in Soft Ground or Water

When operating in soft ground, understand the soil consistency and limit the digging range to prevent landslides or collapses, as well as excessive sinking of the machine. In water, be mindful of the permissible depth (the water level should be below the center of the idler wheels). High water levels can lead to poor lubrication inside the rotary support due to water ingress, damage to the engine fan blades from water impact, and short circuits or disconnections in electrical circuits due to water infiltration.


By mastering these techniques, excavator operators can enhance both safety and productivity across various working conditions.

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